ï»¿Spread Sheets
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Spread Sheets
Background
For along time bursars and account clerks have been using ledger books to store numerical data for accounting work.
Similarly, in schools teachers use mark books for entering students scores in various subjects. In each case, data is
entered manually. Incase of changes one has to cancel, rub, use whiteout or remove the paper and redo the work.
Background
For along time bursars and accounts clerks have been using ledger books to store numerical data for accounting work.
Similarly in schools teachers use mark books for entering students scores in various subjects. In each case, data is
entered manually. Incase of changes one has to cancel, rub, use whiteout or remove the paper and redo the work. This
leads to untidy, tedious and time wasting task. With the advent of electronic spreadsheets, problems associated with
data entry, modification, and manipulation has been solved. The provision of tools in electronic spreadsheet have made
it easier to perform tasks previously carried out manually.
Background
For along time bursars and account clerks have been using ledger books to store numerical data for accounting work.
Similarly, in schools teachers use mark books for entering students scores in various subjects. In each case, data is
entered manually. Incase of changes one has to cancel, rub, use whiteout or remove the paper and redo the work.
Background
For along time bursars and accounts clerks have been using ledger books to store numerical data for accounting work.
Similarly in schools teachers use mark books for entering students scores in various subjects. In each case, data is
entered manually. Incase of changes one has to cancel, rub, use whiteout or remove the paper and redo the work. This
leads to untidy, tedious and time wasting task. With the advent of electronic spreadsheets, problems associated with
data entry, modification, and manipulation has been solved. The provision of tools in electronic spreadsheet have made
it easier to perform tasks previously carried out manually.
Objectives
By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
 Define a spread sheet
 Describe the components of a spreadsheet
 State the application areas of a spreadsheet
 Create and edit a worksheet
 Explain different cell data types
 Apply cell referencing
 Apply data management skills
 Apply charting and graphing skills
 Print worksheet and graph.
Introduction
Components of a Spreadsheet
Nearly every part of the spreadsheet has its own term and it is quite useful to know your spreadsheet vocabulary to
make using Excel easier. There are three basic parts of an Excel Spreadsheet: The worksheet, databases and graphs.
1. Columns – The vertical segments that you see on the spreadsheet are called columns. (P). The illustration below
shows column ‘A’. Excel uses letters to represent columns. (P)
2. Rows (P)The horizontal segments, that run lefttoright, are referred to as rows. The illustration below shows row
1.(P)Excel uses numbers to represent rows.(P)
3. Cell – The intersection between a row and column is referred to as a cell. (P) The illustration below shows a cell.
4. Worksheet comprises rows and columns(P)
5. Database a container for related data contained in a worksheet(P)
6. Graph A pictorial representation of a worksheet (P)
Excel Cells
VO2
The first cell, where column A and row 1 intersect is referred to as A1.
Here’s a picture of Cell A1:
Formatting a Cell
Drag and Drop
In excel, drag and drop is achieved by:
1. Selecting the cell(s) to be moved.
2. To select an individual cell, click that cell.
3. To select multiple contiguous cells, click and drag across the desired cells.
4. Point to and click the heavy border surrounding the cell(s).
5. The mouse pointer changes to a fourheaded arrow.
6. Hold the mouse button; drag the cells to the new location
7. Drop the cells and release the mouse button.
Note: If information already exists at the new location, a dialog box will appear asking if you want to replace the
information. Respond accordingly.
Cut and Paste
When using Cut and Paste, double check formulas to ensure that cell references are properly updated.
1. Select the cell(s) to be moved HINTS: To select an individual cell, click that cell.To select multiple contiguous
cells, click and drag across the desired cells. 2. From the Edit menu, select Cut OR On the Standard toolbar, click
CUT A moving border appears around your selection.
3. Select the cell where you want the cell(s) to be pasted
4. From the Edit menu, select Paste OR On the Standard toolbar, click PASTE
Cut and Paste
Cut and Paste
When using Cut and Paste, double check formulas to ensure that cell references are properly updated.
1. Select the cell(s) to be moved HINTS: To select an individual cell, click that cell.To select multiple contiguous
cells, click and drag across the desired cells. 2. From the Edit menu, select Cut OR On the Standard toolbar, click
CUT A moving border appears around your selection.
3. Select the cell where you want the cell(s) to be pasted
4. From the Edit menu, select Paste OR On the Standard toolbar, click PASTE
Internet Worms
Internet worms will scan through all available network resources using local operating system services and scans the
Internet for unprotected machines. They attempt to connect to these machines in order to gain full access to them.
A Story
Here is another story about a Computer error linked to horrific Qantas jet plunge
October 08, 2008 10:18am
A QANTAS aircraft flying from Singapore to Perth shot up 300 feet before pitching earthward after signaling to its
pilots “irregularities” in its elevator control system.
The “ghost in the machine” malfunction which caused a midair drama leaving 46 people injured has puzzled air safety
investigators who cannot recall a similar incident in aviation history.
Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) director of aviation safety investigation Julian Walsh said there was no
doubt the Airbus A 330300, traveling at 37,000 feet, had briefly taken control of itself.
There are other numerous reported incidences due to computer errors and accidents.
Errors and accidents in computer systems may be classified as;
‘ Human errors
‘ Procedural errors
‘ Software errors
‘ Electromechanical problems
‘ Dirty data
Backup
Backup refers to making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original after a
data loss event. These additional copies are typically called “backups.” Backups are useful primarily for two
purposes. The first is to restore a state following a disaster (called disaster recovery). The second is to restore
small numbers of files after they have been accidentally deleted or corrupted.
Functions of a Spreadsheet
Objectives
By the end of the lesson, you should be able to; (i) Utilize basic mathematical operators
(ii) Apply basic mathematical formulae
Multiplication
 Hold down the Ctrl key while you press “g” (Ctrl+g).(P) The Go To dialog box appears.(P)
 Type C1 in the Reference field.(P)
 Press Enter(P) Excel moves to cell C1(P)
 Type Multiply(P)
 Press Enter.(P) Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type 2 in cell C2.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell(P)
 Type 3 in cell C3.(P)
 Press Enter(P). Excel moves down one cell(P)
 Type =C2*C3 in cell C4(P)
 Click the check mark on the Formula bar.(P) Excel multiplies C1 by cell C2(P) and displays the result in cell
C3(P). The formula displays on the Formula bar(P)
Introducing Basic Functions and Formulae
Spreadsheets are used to perform basic mathematical functions for example automatically adding, multiplying and
dividing. They can also be used to carry out statistical functions like finding the average, the largest and minimum
value in a set of values, counting the number of cells that contain values within a range and even determining the
rank of a number in a list by comparing its size relative to others.
A mathematical operator is the symbol or sign that represents an arithmetic operation in an Excel spreadsheet formula.
The mathematical operators used in Excel formulas are similar to the ones we use in our maths class. These are:
Subtraction – minus sign ( – ) Addition – plus sign ( + ) Division – forward slash
Multiplication – asterisk (x ) Exponentiation – caret (^ )
Definition
A mathematical operator is the symbol or sign that represents an arithmetic operation in an Excel spreadsheet formula.
The mathematical operators used in Excel formulas are similar to the ones we use in our maths class. These are:
Subtraction – minus sign ( – ) Addition – plus sign ( + ) Division – forward slash
Multiplication – asterisk (x ) Exponentiation – caret (^ )
Addition
 Type Add in cell A1.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type 1 in cell A2.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type 1 in cell A3.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type =A2+A3 in cell A4.(P)
 Click the check mark on the Formula bar(P). Excel adds cell A1 to cell A2 and displays the result in cell A4.
(P)The formula displays on the Formula bar(P).
Note: Clicking the check mark on the Formula bar is similar to pressing Enter(P). Excel records your entry but does
not move to the next cell.
Subtraction
 Press F5. (P)The Go To dialog box appears.
 Type B1 in the Reference field.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves to cell B1.(P)
 Type Subtract.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type 6 in cell B2.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type 3 in cell B3.(P)
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type =B2B3 in cell B4.(P)
 Click the check mark on the Formula bar. (P)Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B2 and the result displays in cell
B4.(P) The formula displays on the Formula bar.(P)
 Press F5. The Go To dialog box appears.
 Type B1 in the Reference field.
 Press Enter. Excel moves to cell B1.
 Type Subtract.
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
 Type 6 in cell B2.
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
 Type 3 in cell B3.
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
 Type =B2B3 in cell B4.
 Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B2 and the result displays in cell
B4. The formula displays on the Formula bar.
Multiplication
1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box appears.
2. Type C1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell C1
4. Type Multiply.
5. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
6. Type 2 in cell C2.
7. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
8. Type 3 in cell C3.
9. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
10. Type =C2*C3 in cell C4.
11. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel multiplies C1 by cell C2 and displays the result in cell C3. The
formula displays on the Formula bar
Multiplication
1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box appears.
2. Type C1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell C1
4. Type Multiply.
5. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
6. Type 2 in cell C2.
7. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
8. Type 3 in cell C3.
9. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
10. Type =C2*C3 in cell C4.
11. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel multiplies C1 by cell C2 and displays the result in cell C3. The
formula displays on the Formula bar
Division
 Press F5.
 Type D1 in the Reference field.
 Press Enter. Excel moves to cell D1.
 Type Divide.
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
 Type 6 in cell D2.
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
 Type 3 in cell D3.
 Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
 Type =D2/D3 in cell D4.
 Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and displays the result in cell D4. The
formula displays on the Formula bar.
When creating formulas, you can reference cells and include numbers. All of the following formulas are valid:
=A2/B2
=A1+12B3
=A2*B2+12
=24+53
Piracy
Computer piracy is the reproduction, distribution, and use of software without the permission of the owner of copy
right
Autosum
You can use the AutoSum button on the Home tab to automatically add a column or row of numbers.(P) 1. Select column D1
and D2 2. Press the AutoSum button. Excel selects the numbers it thinks you want to add. 2. Click the check mark on
the Formula bar or press the Enter ke. 3. Excel adds the numbers. If Excel’s guess as to which numbers you want to add
is wrong, you can select the cells you want.
Illustrating autosum
 Go to cell F1.(P)
 Type 3. (P)
 Press Enter.(P) Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type 3.(P)
 Press Enter.(P) Excel moves down one cell.(P)
 Type 3. (P)
 Press Enter(P). Excel moves down one cell to cell F4.(P)
 Choose the Home tab.(P)
 Click the AutoSum button in the Editing group.(P) Excel selects cells F1 through F3 and enters a formula in cell
F4.(P).
Automatic calculations
By default, Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet as you change cell entries. This makes it easy for you to
correct mistakes and analyze a variety of scenarios.Make the changes described below and note how Microsoft Excel
automatically recalculates. 1. Move to cell A2.(P)
2. Type 2.(P)
3. Press the right arrow key. Excel changes the result in cell A4. Excel adds cell A2 to cell A3 and the new result
appears in cell A4.(P)
4. Move to cell B2.(P)
5. Type 8. (P)
6. Press the right arrow key. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B2 and the new result appears in cell B4.(P)
7. Move to cell C2.(P)
8. Type 4.(P)
9. Press the right arrow key. Excel multiplies cell C2 by cell C3 and the new result appears in cell C4.(P)
10. Move to cell D2.(P)
11. Type 12. (P)
12. Press the Enter key.(P) Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and the new result appears in cell D4.(P)
Product
A better way of using the product function is to type the numbers you are multiplying into cells on the spreadsheet
and then enter those cell references (the address of the cells) into the function. For example, if we enter the
numbers 235 and 546 into cells C1 and C2, we would write the function as:
=PRODUCT( C1:C2 )
The answer is 128,310. If the numbers ever change, you only need to change the numbers in cells C1 or C2 and the
function automatically updates the answer. For example, if you find that the number in C1 wasn’t 235 but 230, simply
type 230 in cell C1 and the function updates the answer to 128,580.
Statistical functions
Average
Example Using Excel’s AVERAGE Function:
The MAX function
Using minimum function
The MAX functiion
The MAX functiion is used to find the largest or maximum number in a given list of values.Follow the steps to
determine the maximum value for the given set of numbers using the MAX function
 Enter the following data into cells C1 to C6: 114,165,178,143,130,167.(P)
 Click on cell C7 – the location where the results will be displayed.(P)
 Type = max( in cell C7.(P)
 Drag select cells C1 to C6 with the mouse pointer.(P)
 Type the closing bracket after the cell range in cell C7.(P)
 Press the ENTER key on the keyboard.(P)
 The answer 178 appears in cell C7.(P)
 The complete function = MAX ( C1 : C6 ) appears in the formula bar.(P)
The Count Function
The count funtion is used to total the number of cells in a selected range. The COUNT function will add up the number
of cells in a selected range that contains numbers. COUNT also ignores empty cells in the selected range. If number
data is later added to an empty cell in the range, the count total is automatically updated. Follow the steps below to
determine the number of values for the given set of numbers using the COUNT function
Using the count Function
 Enter the following data into cells C1 to C6: 11,12,13,14,15,16.(P)
 Click on cell C7 – the location where the results will be displayed.(P)
 Type =count( in cell C7.(P)
 Drag select cells C1 to C6 with the mouse pointer.(P)
 Type the closing bracket “)” after the cell range in cell C7.(P)
 Press the ENTER key on the keyboard.(P)
 The answer 6 appears in cell C7.(P)
 The complete function =COUNT(C1:C6) appears in the formula bar.(P)
Note: Since dates, times, and formulas are stored as numbers in Excel, the COUNT function will include any cells
containing these types of data in the total.
Ligical functions
Objectives
Describe a logical function
Apply basic logical functions
the IF
1. Enter 35 into cell D1.(P)2. Click on cell E1 – the location where the results will be displayed.(P)3. Click on the
Formulas tab.(P) 4. Choose Logical Functions from the ribbon to open the drop down list.(P)
5. Click on IF in the list to bring up the function’s dialog box. (P) 6. On theLogical_test line in the dialog box,
click on cell D1. After this type the less than symbol and then the number 26. (P) 7. On the Value_if_true line of the
dialog box, type 100.(P) 8. On the Value_if_false line of the dialog box, type 200.(P) 9. Click OK.(P) 10. The value
200 should appear in cell E1, since the value in D1 is greater than 26.(P) 11. To change the result in cell E1, change
the number in cell D1 to 15 and press the Enter key.(P)12. The value 100 should now be present in cell E1 since the
value in D1 is now less than 26.(P)13. If you click on cell E1, the complete function = IF ( D1 26 , 100 , 200 )
appears in the formula bar above the worksheet.(P)
Using the count IF function
 Enter the following data into cells E1 to E6: 114,165,178,143,130,165.(P)
 Click on cell E7 – the location where the results will be displayed.(P)
 Click on the Formulas tab.(P)
 Choose More Functions > Statistical from the ribbon to open the function drop down list.(P)
 Click on COUNTIF in the list to bring up the function’s dialog box. (P)
 In the dialog box, click on the button at the end of the Range line to return to your spreadsheet.(P)
 Drag select cells E1 to E6 on the spreadsheet to highlight them.(P)
 Click on the button at the end of the Range line to return to the dialog box.(P)
 On the Criteria line in the dialog box, type “165”.(P)
 Click OK.(P)
 The answer 2 should appear in cell E7 since two cells in the range contain the number 165.(P)
 When you click on cell E7 the complete function = COUNTIF (E1 : E6 , 165 ) appears in the formula bar above the
worksheet(P)
SUM IF
 Enter the following data into cells E1 to E6: 114,165,178,143,130,165.(P)
 Enter the following data into cells F1 to F6: 10, 20, 30, 10, 20, 30.(P)
 Click on cell F7 – the location where the results will be displayed.(P)
 Click on the Formulas tab of the ribbon.(P)
 Choose Math & Trig from the ribbon to open the function drop down list.(P)
 Click on SUMIF in the list to bring up the function’s dialog box. (P)
 In the dialog box, click on the Range line.(P)
 Drag select cells E1 to E6 on the spreadsheet.(P)
 On the Criteria line in the dialog box, type “165”.(P)
 Click on the SUM Range line.(P)
 Drag select cells F1 to F6 on the spreadsheet.(P)
 Click OK.(P)
 The answer 50 should appear in cell F7. Since the criteria of equaling 165 is met by only two cells – E2 and E6,
only their corresponding cells – F2 and F6 are summed. The sum of 20 and 30 is 50.(P)
Using the count IF function
 Enter the following data into cells E1 to E6: 114,165,178,143,130,165.(P)
 Click on cell E7 – the location where the results will be displayed.(P)
 Click on the Formulas tab.(P)
 Choose More Functions > Statistical from the ribbon to open the function drop down list.(P)
 Click on COUNTIF in the list to bring up the function’s dialog box. (P)
 In the dialog box, click on the button at the end of the Range line to return to your spreadsheet.(P)
 Drag select cells E1 to E6 on the spreadsheet to highlight them.(P)
 Click on the button at the end of the Range line to return to the dialog box.(P)
 On the Criteria line in the dialog box, type “165”.(P)
 Click OK.(P)
 The answer 2 should appear in cell E7 since two cells in the range contain the number 165.(P)
 When you click on cell E7 the complete function = COUNTIF (E1 : E6 , 165 ) appears in the formula bar above the
worksheet(P)
SUM IF
 Enter the following data into cells E1 to E6: 114,165,178,143,130,165.(P)
 Enter the following data into cells F1 to F6: 10, 20, 30, 10, 20, 30.(P)
 Click on cell F7 – the location where the results will be displayed.(P)
 Click on the Formulas tab of the ribbon.(P)
 Choose Math & Trig from the ribbon to open the function drop down list.(P)
 Click on SUMIF in the list to bring up the function’s dialog box. (P)
 In the dialog box, click on the Range line.(P)
 Drag select cells E1 to E6 on the spreadsheet.(P)
 On the Criteria line in the dialog box, type “165”.(P)
 Click on the SUM Range line.(P)
 Drag select cells F1 to F6 on the spreadsheet.(P)
 Click OK.(P)
 The answer 50 should appear in cell F7. Since the criteria of equaling 165 is met by only two cells – E2 and E6,
only their corresponding cells – F2 and F6 are summed. The sum of 20 and 30 is 50.(P)
Data Management
Microsoft Excel data management tools enable you to create lists, sort and filter data to find specific information
that meets the set criteria.
Data Management
Microsoft Excel data management tools enable you to create lists, sort and filter data to find specific information
that meets the set criteria.
Sorting and
Apply sorting
Tables of Data
The basic format for storing data in an Excel database is a table. Once a table has been created, Excel’s data tools
can be used to search, sort, and filter records in the database to find specific information. An example of such a
table is as shown here.
Entering a Record (Click to Play)
Rows and records
Each individual row of data, in a database is known as a record. When entering records keep these guidelines in mind:
Leave no blank rows in the table being created. This includes NOT leaving a blank row between the column headings and
the first row of data.
A record can contain data about only one specific item.
A record must also contain ALL the data in the database about that item. There can’t be information about an item in
more than one row.
Columns and fields
While rows in an Excel database are referred to as records, the columns are known as fields. Each column needs a
heading to identify the data it contains. These headings are called field names.
Field names are used to ensure that the data for each record is entered in the same sequence.
Make sure that all the data in a column is entered using the same format. If you start entering numbers as digits
(such as 10 or 20) keep it up. Don’t change part way through and begin entering numbers as words (such as ten or
twenty). Be consistent.
Do not leave blank columns in the table.
Creating a table or database
Filtering and Adding Records
Adding Records
Sorting Data
Filtering data
 Click on the drop down arrow next to the Program field name.
 Click on the check box next to the Select All option to clear all check boxes.
 Click on the check box next to the Business option to add a check mark to the box.
 Click OK.
 Only two students – G. Thompson and F. Smith should be visible since they are the only two enrolled in the business
program.
6. To show all records, click on the drop down arrow next to the Program field name.
7. Click on the Clear Filter from “Program” option.
Adding records into the database
To add additional records to your database:
Place your mouse pointer over the small dot in the bottom right hand corner of the table.
The mouse pointer will change into a two – headed arrow.
When this happens, click and hold down the right mouse button and drag the pointer down to add a blank row to the
bottom of the database.
Add the following data to this new row:
Cell – Data
A14 – ST348255
B14 – Christopher
C14 – A.
D14 – 22
E14 – Science
Forms
A form is graphical user interface that is used to enter , edit, display and manipulate records in a table or a
database.
Data input Using Forms
Analysing the Form
Data input using forms
Click inside cell A3 of your spreadsheet
From the Excel menu bar, click on Data
From the drop down list, click Form
A form like the one below should pop up on top of your spreadsheet:
Analying the form
As you can see, the labels for the months are on the left. To the right of each month there is a text box. The numbers
currently in them are the numbers inputted on the spreadsheet.
Click the New button at the top
The text boxes go blank
Click inside the January text box and enter a new number
Enter new number for the rest of the months
When you have finished, click the New button again
NOTE When you click the new button, Excel will enter the numbers into your spreadsheet. The text boxes will be blanked
out, ready for some new data.
The form even gives you button to set up some search criteria (Find and Criteria buttons). When you want to get back
to your spreadsheet, just click the Close button.
Totals / Subtotals function
Data can be sorted and summarized by creating subtotals. When a list is summarized excel calculates subtotals based
on the subsets of data and also calculates the grand total.
Charts and graghs
Objectives
By the end of the lesson, you should be able to
:
 Identify types of charts and graphs
 Select data ranges to create charts
 Format charts
Introducing Charts and Graphs
A chart is an effective way of representing values using a visual presentation aid. It is a technique of displaying
data using pictures and graphical representations instead of numbers or simple words.
It works by drawing figures that would represent numbers, adding colors and shapes to the information presented
Types of charts
Excel provides for creation of the following types of charts among others.
Pie
Bar
Line
Column
Creating a Pie Chart
Data Range
Creating a Bar Chart with two Series
Definition of a spreadsheet
A spreadsheet is a computer program that manipulates and presents numerical, statistical and graphical information. A
spreadsheet is simply a grid of boxes, or cells, set up in rows and columns. Examples of common spreadsheet
application packages include: Ms Excel, Apple Numbers, Open Office, GNumeric, KSpread, Lotus 123.
Ms Excel Spreadsheet
GNumeric Spreadsheet
Components of a Spread Sheet
Nearly every part of the spreadsheet has its own defining term and it is quite useful to know your spreadsheet
vocabulary to make using Excel easier. There are three basic parts of an Excel Spreadsheet:
* Worksheet
* Databases
* Graphs
Worksheet
It comprises colums and rows as shown below.
Columns
Refer to vertical segments on the spreadsheet. The illustration below shows column A
Excel uses letters to represent columns.
Rows
The horizontal segments, that run lefttoright, are referred to as rows. The illustration below shows row one.
Excel uses numbers to represent rows.
Cell
The intersection between a row and column is referred to as a cell.The illustration below shows a cell. The first
cell, where column A and row 1 intersect is referred to as A1. Here’s a picture of Cell A1:
Database
Is a container for related data contained in a worksheet.Here is an example of a database.
Graph
Is a pictorial representation of a worksheet.
Creating a Worksheet
You can create a worksheet by entering data in the cells of the current worksheet. Alternatively, you can create a
worksheet either using the general format or from a specially preformatted spreadsheet document called a template.
Starting Microsoft Excel
Application areas of a Spreadsheet
Statistical Analysis
You can use a set of data analysis tools to develop complex statistics. Examples of some simple statistical functions
that you can carry out are average and median. You can use average to calculate the mean of a set of values and median
to determine the value in the middle of a set of values. Using statistical analysis,find the average and median of the
following values:
50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100.
The average and median of these set of values are both 75.
Accounting
Spreadsheets provide inbuilt functions that make accounting easier. You can use spreadsheets to do the following:
* Prepare functions
* Calculate profits
* Track the value of assets over time.
An accountant can use formulae such as sum, average, and product, to make his/her work easier.
Data Management
You can arrange your data into a tabular structure in different ways. You can key in related data on the same
worksheet and you can also link data on different worksheets to enhance accessibility.
Data management functions include sorting, filtering and using forms to enter and view records.
You can create, edit, save, retrieve and print worksheet data and records.
Forecasting
Worksheets provide the automatic recalculation feature that enables the use of ‘what if’ analysis technique.This
involves changing the value of one of the arguments in a formula to see the effect the change would make on the
calculation. For example, calculating profits at various sales of different kilograms of tomatoes from your school
garden. Thus, if one kilogram of tomatoes sells for KSHs. 80, then 2kilograms will sell for KSHs. 160.
Creating a Worksheet
Using Operators
Mathematical Functions
A function is a preset formula in Excel. unlike formulas, functions begin with the equal sign ( = ) followed by the
function’s name and its arguments. The function name tells Excel what calculation to perform. The arguments are
contained inside round brackets.
For example, the most used function in Excel is the SUM function, which is used to add together the data in selected
cells. To add data in cells D1 and D6, the SUM function is written as = SUM (D1: D6)
Addition Function
Division Function
Autosum Function
Automatic calculation Function
Using the IF Function
Using the Count IF Function
Using the Sum IF Function
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